Subpart 1516.3 - Cost-Reimbursement Contracts
1516.301-70 Payment of fee.
The policy of EPA for cost-reimbursement, term form contracts is to make provisional payment of fee (i.e. the fixed fee on cost-plus-fixed-fee type contracts or the base fee on cost-plus-award-fee type contracts) on a percentage of work completed basis, when such a method will not prove detrimental to proper contract performance. Percentage of work completed is the ratio of the direct labor hours performed in relation to the direct labor hours set forth in the contract in clause 48 CFR 1552.211-73, Level of Effort - Cost Reimbursement Contract. Provisional payment of fee will remain subject to withholding provisions, such as in FAR 52.216-8, Fixed Fee.
1516.303 Cost-sharing contracts.
Cost-sharing is a generic term denoting any situation where the Government does not fully reimburse a contractor for all allowable costs necessary to accomplish the project under the contract. This term encompasses cost-matching and cost-limitations, in addition to cost-sharing. Cost-sharing does not include usual contractual limitations such as indirect cost ceilings in accordance with FAR 42.707, or ceilings on travel or other direct costs. Cost-sharing contracts may be required as a result of Congressional mandate.
(a) The Agency shall use cost-sharing contracts where the principal purpose is ultimate commercialization and utilization of technologies by the private sector. There should also be a reasonable expectation of future economic benefits for the contractor and the Government beyond the Government's contract.
(b) Cost-sharing may be accomplished by a contribution to either direct or indirect costs, provided such costs are reasonable, allocable and allowable in accordance with the cost principles of the contract. Allowable costs which are absorbed by the contractor as its share of contract costs may not be charged directly or indirectly to the Agency or the Federal Government.
(c) Unsolicited proposals will be considered on a case-by-case basis by the Contracting Officer as to the appropriateness of cost-sharing.
1516.303-73 Types of cost-sharing.
(a) Cost-sharing may be accomplished in various forms or combinations. These include, but are not limited to: cash outlays, real property or interest therein, personal property or services, cost matching, or other in-kind contributions.
(b) In-kind contributions represent non-cash contributions provided by the performing contractor which would normally be a charge against the contract. While in-kind contributions are an acceptable method of cost-sharing, should the booked costs of property appear unrealistic, the fair market value of the property shall be determined pursuant to 1516.303-74 of this chapter.
(c) In-kind contributions may be in the form of personal property (equipment or supplies) or services which are directly beneficial, specifically identifiable and necessary for the performance of the contract. In-kind contributions must meet all of the following criteria before acceptance.
(1) Be verifiable from the contractor's books and records;
(2) Not be included as contributions under any other Federal contract;
(3) Be necessary to accomplish project objectives;
(4) Provide for types of charges that would otherwise be allowable under applicable Federal cost principles appropriate to the contractor's organization; and
(5) Not be paid for by the Federal Government under any contract, agreement or grant.
1516.303-74 Determining the value of in-kind contributions.
In-kind contributions accepted from a contractor will be addressed on a case-by-case basis provided the established values do not exceed fair market values.
(a) Where the Agency receives title to donated land, building, equipment or supplies and the property is not fully consumed during performance of the contract, the Contracting Officer should establish the property's value based on the contractor's booked costs (i.e., acquisition cost less depreciation, if any) at the time of donation. If the booked costs reflect unrealistic values when compared to current market conditions, the Contracting Officer may establish another appropriate value if supported by an independent appraisal of the fair market value of the donated property or property in similar condition and circumstances.
(b) The Contracting Officer will monitor reports of in-kind costs as they are incurred or recognized during the contract period of performance to determine that the value of in-kind services does not exceed fair market values.
(c) The value of any services or the use of personal or real property donated by a contractor should be established when necessary in accordance with generally accepted accounting policies and Federal cost principles.
1516.303-75 Amount of cost-sharing.
(a) Contractors should contribute a reasonable amount of the total project cost covered under the contract. The ratio of cost participation should correlate to the apparent advantages available to performers and the proximity of implementing commercialization, i.e., the higher the potential for future profits, the higher the contractor's share should be.
(b) Fee will not be paid to the contractor or any member of the contractor team (subcontractors and consultants) which has a substantial and direct interest in the contract, or is in a position to gain long term benefits from the contract. A vulnerability the Contracting Officer should consider in reviewing a prime contractor's request for consent to subcontract is whether subcontractors under prime cost-sharing contracts have a significant direct interest in the contract to gain long-term benefits from the contract.
(c) The Contracting Officer, with the input of technical experts, may consider the following factors in determining reasonable levels of cost sharing:
(1) The availability of the technology to competitors;
(2) Improvements in the contractor's market share position;
(3) The time and risk necessary to achieve success;
(4) If the results of the project involve patent rights which could be sold or licensed;
(5) If the contractor has non-Federal sources of funds to include as cost participation; and
(6) If the contractor has the production and other capabilities to capitalize the results of the project.
(d) A contractor's cost participation can be provided by other subcontractors with which it has contractual arrangements to perform the contract as long as the contractor's cost-sharing goal is met.
1516.303-76 Fee on cost-sharing contracts by subcontractors.
(a) Subcontractors under prime cost-sharing contracts who do not have a significant direct interest in the contract or who are not in a position to gain long-term benefits from the contract may earn a fee.
(b) Contracting Officers should be alert to a potential vulnerability for the Government under cost-sharing contracts when evaluating proposed subcontractors or consenting to a subcontract during contract administration, where the subcontractor is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the prime. The vulnerability consists of the subsidiary earning a large amount of fee, which could be returned to the prime through stock dividends or other intercompany transactions. This could circumvent the objective of a cost-sharing contract.
1516.303-77 Administrative requirements.
(a) The initial Procurement Request shall reflect the total estimated cost of the cost-sharing contract. The face page of the contract award shall indicate the total estimated cost of the contract, the Contractor's share of the cost, and the Government's share of the cost.
(b) The manner of cost-sharing and how it is to be accomplished shall be set forth in the contract. Additionally, contracts which provide for cost-sharing shall require the contractor to maintain records adequate to reflect the nature and extent of their cost-sharing as well as those costs charged the Agency. Such records may be subject to an Agency audit.
1516.307 Contract clauses.
(a) The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 1552.216-71, Date of Incurrence of Cost, in cost-reimbursement contracts when an anticipatory cost letter has been issued on the project.
(b) The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 1552.216-74, Payment of Fee, in solicitations and contracts where a cost-reimbursement term form contract is contemplated, unless the Contracting Officer determines that such a provision would be detrimental to ensuring proper contract performance.
(c) The Contracting Officer shall insert a clause substantially the same as 48 CFR 1552.216-76, Estimated Cost and Cost-Sharing, in solicitations and contracts where the total incurred costs are shared by the contractor on a straight percentage basis. The Contracting Officer may develop other clauses, as appropriate, following the same approach, but reflecting different cost-sharing arrangements negotiated on specific contract actions.
1516.370 Solicitation provision.
The solicitation document shall state whether any cost-sharing is required, and may set forth a target level of cost-sharing. Although technical considerations are normally most important, the degree of cost-sharing may be considered in a selection decision when cost becomes a determinative factor in a selection decision.