970.1504-1-4 Types of contracts and fee arrangements.
(a) Contract types and fee arrangements suitable for management and operating contracts may include cost, cost-plus-fixed-fee, cost-plus-award-fee, cost-plus-incentive-fee, fixed-price incentive, firm-fixed-price or any combination thereof (see 48 CFR subpart 16.1). In accordance with 48 CFR 970.1504-1-2(b)(1), the fee arrangement chosen for each work element should reflect the financial risk for project failure that contractors are willing to accept. Contracting officials shall structure each contract and the elements of the work in such a manner that the risk is manageable and, therefore, assumable by the contractor.
(b) Consistent with the concept of a performance-based management contract, those contract types which incentivize performance and cost control are preferred over a cost-plus-fixed-fee arrangement. Accordingly, a cost-plus-fixed-fee contract in instances other than those set forth in 970.1504-1-3(c)(2) may only be used when approved in advance by the Senior Procurement Executive, or designee.
(c) A cost-plus-award-fee contract is generally the appropriate contract type for a management and operating contract.
(1) Where work cannot be adequately defined to the point that a fixed price contract is acceptable, the attainment of acquisition objectives generally will be enhanced by using a cost-plus-award-fee contract or other incentive fee arrangement to effectively motivate the contractor to superior performance and to provide the Department with flexibility to evaluate actual performance and the conditions under which it was achieved.
(2) The construct of fee for a cost-plus-award-fee management and operating contract is that total available fee will equal a base fee amount and a performance fee amount. The total available fee amount including the performance fee amount the contractor may earn, in whole or in part during performance, shall be established annually (or as otherwise agreed to by the parties and approved by the Senior Procurement Executive, or designee), in an amount sufficient to motivate performance excellence.
(3) However, consistent with concepts of performance-based contracting, it is Departmental policy to place fee at risk based on performance. Accordingly, a base fee amount will be available only when approved in advance by the Senior Procurement Executive, or designee, except as permitted in 970.1504-1-3(c)(1). Any base fee amount shall be fixed, expressed as a percent of the total available fee at inception of the contract, and shall not exceed that percent during the life of the contract.
(4) The performance fee amount may consist of an objective fee component and a subjective fee component. Objective performance measures, when appropriately applied, provide greater incentives for superior performance than do subjective performance measures and should be used to the maximum extent appropriate. Subjective measures should be used when it is not feasible to devise effective predetermined objective measures applicable to cost, technical performance, or schedule for particular work elements.
(d) Consistent with performance-based contracting concepts, performance objectives and measures related to performance fee should be as clearly defined as possible and, where feasible, expressed in terms of desired performance results or outcomes. Specific measures for determining performance achievement should be used. The contract should identify the amount and allocation of fee to each performance result or outcome.
(e) Because the nature and complexity of the work performed under a management and operating contract may be varied, opportunities may exist to utilize multiple contract types and fee arrangements. Consistent with paragraph (a) of this subsection and 48 CFR subpart 16.1, the contracting officer should apply that contract type or fee arrangement most appropriate to the work component. However, multiple contract types or fee arrangements -
(1) Must conform to the requirements of 48 CFR part 915 and 48 CFR parts 15 and 16, and
(2) Where appropriate to the type, must be supported by -
(i) Negotiated costs subject to the requirements of the Truth in Negotiations Act,
(ii) A pre-negotiation memorandum, and
(iii) A plan describing how each contract type or fee arrangement will be administered.
(f) Cost reduction incentives are addressed in the clause at 970.5215-4, Cost Reduction. This clause provides for incentives for quantifiable cost reductions associated with contractor proposed changes to a design, process, or method that has an established cost, technical, and schedule baseline, is defined, and is subject to a formal control procedure. The clause is to be included in management and operating contracts as appropriate. Proposed changes must be: Initiated by the contractor, innovative, applied to a specific project or program, and not otherwise included in an incentive under the contract. Such cost reduction incentives do not constitute fee and are not subject to statutory or regulatory fee limitations; however, they are subject to all appropriate requirements set forth in this subpart.
(g) Operations and field offices shall take the lead in developing and implementing the most appropriate pricing arrangement or cost reduction incentive for the requirements. Pricing arrangements which provide incentives for performance and cost control are preferred over those that do not. The operations and field offices are to ensure that the necessary resources and infrastructure exist within both the contractor's and government's organizations to prepare, evaluate, and administer the pricing arrangement or cost reduction incentive prior to its implementation.